A library for creating generic graph data structures and modifying, analyzing, and visualizing them.

**Are you using graph? Check out the graph user survey.**

# Features

- Generic vertices of any type, such as
`int`

or`City`

. - Graph traits with corresponding validations, such as cycle checks in acyclic graphs.
- Algorithms for finding paths or components, such as shortest paths or strongly connected components.
- Algorithms for transformations and representations, such as transitive reduction or topological order.
- Algorithms for non-recursive graph traversal, such as DFS or BFS.
- Vertices and edges with optional metadata, such as weights or custom attributes.
- Visualization of graphs using the DOT language and Graphviz.
- Integrate any storage backend by using your own
`Store`

implementation. - Extensive tests with ~90% coverage, and zero dependencies.

Status: Because

`graph`

is in version 0, the public API shouldn't be considered stable.

This README may contain unreleased changes. Check out the latest documentation.

# Getting started

```
go get github.com/dominikbraun/graph
```

# Quick examples

## Create a graph of integers

```
g := graph.New(graph.IntHash)
_ = g.AddVertex(1)
_ = g.AddVertex(2)
_ = g.AddVertex(3)
_ = g.AddVertex(4)
_ = g.AddVertex(5)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 2)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 4)
_ = g.AddEdge(2, 3)
_ = g.AddEdge(2, 4)
_ = g.AddEdge(2, 5)
_ = g.AddEdge(3, 5)
```

## Create a directed acyclic graph of integers

```
g := graph.New(graph.IntHash, graph.Directed(), graph.Acyclic())
_ = g.AddVertex(1)
_ = g.AddVertex(2)
_ = g.AddVertex(3)
_ = g.AddVertex(4)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 2)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 3)
_ = g.AddEdge(2, 3)
_ = g.AddEdge(2, 4)
_ = g.AddEdge(3, 4)
```

## Create a graph of a custom type

To understand this example in detail, see the concept of hashes.

```
type City struct {
Name string
}
cityHash := func(c City) string {
return c.Name
}
g := graph.New(cityHash)
_ = g.AddVertex(london)
```

## Create a weighted graph

```
g := graph.New(cityHash, graph.Weighted())
_ = g.AddVertex(london)
_ = g.AddVertex(munich)
_ = g.AddVertex(paris)
_ = g.AddVertex(madrid)
_ = g.AddEdge("london", "munich", graph.EdgeWeight(3))
_ = g.AddEdge("london", "paris", graph.EdgeWeight(2))
_ = g.AddEdge("london", "madrid", graph.EdgeWeight(5))
_ = g.AddEdge("munich", "madrid", graph.EdgeWeight(6))
_ = g.AddEdge("munich", "paris", graph.EdgeWeight(2))
_ = g.AddEdge("paris", "madrid", graph.EdgeWeight(4))
```

## Perform a Depth-First Search

This example traverses and prints all vertices in the graph in DFS order.

```
g := graph.New(graph.IntHash, graph.Directed())
_ = g.AddVertex(1)
_ = g.AddVertex(2)
_ = g.AddVertex(3)
_ = g.AddVertex(4)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 2)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 3)
_ = g.AddEdge(3, 4)
_ = graph.DFS(g, 1, func(value int) bool {
fmt.Println(value)
return false
})
```

```
1 3 4 2
```

## Find strongly connected components

```
g := graph.New(graph.IntHash)
// Add vertices and edges ...
scc, _ := graph.StronglyConnectedComponents(g)
fmt.Println(scc)
```

```
[[1 2 5] [3 4 8] [6 7]]
```

## Find the shortest path

```
g := graph.New(graph.StringHash, graph.Weighted())
// Add vertices and weighted edges ...
path, _ := graph.ShortestPath(g, "A", "B")
fmt.Println(path)
```

```
[A C E B]
```

## Find spanning trees

```
g := graph.New(graph.StringHash, graph.Weighted())
// Add vertices and edges ...
mst, _ := graph.MinimumSpanningTree(g)
```

## Perform a topological sort

```
g := graph.New(graph.IntHash, graph.Directed(), graph.PreventCycles())
// Add vertices and edges ...
// For a deterministic topological ordering, use StableTopologicalSort.
order, _ := graph.TopologicalSort(g)
fmt.Println(order)
```

```
[1 2 3 4 5]
```

## Perform a transitive reduction

```
g := graph.New(graph.StringHash, graph.Directed(), graph.PreventCycles())
// Add vertices and edges ...
transitiveReduction, _ := graph.TransitiveReduction(g)
```

## Prevent the creation of cycles

```
g := graph.New(graph.IntHash, graph.PreventCycles())
_ = g.AddVertex(1)
_ = g.AddVertex(2)
_ = g.AddVertex(3)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 2)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 3)
if err := g.AddEdge(2, 3); err != nil {
panic(err)
}
```

```
panic: an edge between 2 and 3 would introduce a cycle
```

## Visualize a graph using Graphviz

The following example will generate a DOT description for `g`

and write it into the given file.

```
g := graph.New(graph.IntHash, graph.Directed())
_ = g.AddVertex(1)
_ = g.AddVertex(2)
_ = g.AddVertex(3)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 2)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 3)
file, _ := os.Create("./mygraph.gv")
_ = draw.DOT(g, file)
```

To generate an SVG from the created file using Graphviz, use a command such as the following:

```
dot -Tsvg -O mygraph.gv
```

The `DOT`

function also supports rendering graph attributes:

```
_ = draw.DOT(g, file, draw.GraphAttribute("label", "my-graph"))
```

### Draw a graph as in this documentation

This graph has been rendered using the following program:

```
package main
import (
"os"
"github.com/dominikbraun/graph"
"github.com/dominikbraun/graph/draw"
)
func main() {
g := graph.New(graph.IntHash)
_ = g.AddVertex(1, graph.VertexAttribute("colorscheme", "blues3"), graph.VertexAttribute("style", "filled"), graph.VertexAttribute("color", "2"), graph.VertexAttribute("fillcolor", "1"))
_ = g.AddVertex(2, graph.VertexAttribute("colorscheme", "greens3"), graph.VertexAttribute("style", "filled"), graph.VertexAttribute("color", "2"), graph.VertexAttribute("fillcolor", "1"))
_ = g.AddVertex(3, graph.VertexAttribute("colorscheme", "purples3"), graph.VertexAttribute("style", "filled"), graph.VertexAttribute("color", "2"), graph.VertexAttribute("fillcolor", "1"))
_ = g.AddVertex(4, graph.VertexAttribute("colorscheme", "ylorbr3"), graph.VertexAttribute("style", "filled"), graph.VertexAttribute("color", "2"), graph.VertexAttribute("fillcolor", "1"))
_ = g.AddVertex(5, graph.VertexAttribute("colorscheme", "reds3"), graph.VertexAttribute("style", "filled"), graph.VertexAttribute("color", "2"), graph.VertexAttribute("fillcolor", "1"))
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 2)
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 4)
_ = g.AddEdge(2, 3)
_ = g.AddEdge(2, 4)
_ = g.AddEdge(2, 5)
_ = g.AddEdge(3, 5)
file, _ := os.Create("./simple.gv")
_ = draw.DOT(g, file)
}
```

It has been rendered using the `neato`

engine:

```
dot -Tsvg -Kneato -O simple.gv
```

The example uses the Brewer color scheme supported by Graphviz.

## Storing edge attributes

Edges may have one or more attributes which can be used to store metadata. Attributes will be taken into account when visualizing a graph. For example, this edge will be rendered in red color:

```
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 2, graph.EdgeAttribute("color", "red"))
```

To get an overview of all supported attributes, take a look at the DOT documentation.

The stored attributes can be retrieved by getting the edge and accessing the `Properties.Attributes`

field.

```
edge, _ := g.Edge(1, 2)
color := edge.Properties.Attributes["color"]
```

## Storing edge data

It is also possible to store arbitrary data inside edges, not just key-value string pairs. This data
is of type `any`

.

```
_ = g.AddEdge(1, 2, graph.EdgeData(myData))
```

The stored data can be retrieved by getting the edge and accessing the `Properties.Data`

field.

```
edge, _ := g.Edge(1, 2)
myData := edge.Properties.Data
```

### Updating edge data

Edge properties can be updated using `Graph.UpdateEdge`

. The following example adds a new `color`

attribute to the edge (A,B) and sets the edge weight to 10.

```
_ = g.UpdateEdge("A", "B", graph.EdgeAttribute("color", "red"), graph.EdgeWeight(10))
```

The method signature and the accepted functional options are exactly the same as for `Graph.AddEdge`

.

## Storing vertex attributes

Vertices may have one or more attributes which can be used to store metadata. Attributes will be taken into account when visualizing a graph. For example, this vertex will be rendered in red color:

```
_ = g.AddVertex(1, graph.VertexAttribute("style", "filled"))
```

The stored data can be retrieved by getting the vertex using `VertexWithProperties`

and accessing
the `Attributes`

field.

```
vertex, properties, _ := g.VertexWithProperties(1)
style := properties.Attributes["style"]
```

To get an overview of all supported attributes, take a look at the DOT documentation.

## Store the graph in a custom storage

You can integrate any storage backend by implementing the `Store`

interface and initializing a new
graph with it:

```
g := graph.NewWithStore(graph.IntHash, myStore)
```

To implement the `Store`

interface appropriately, take a look at the documentation.
`graph-sql`

is a ready-to-use SQL store implementation.

# Documentation

The full documentation is available at pkg.go.dev.

**Are you using graph? Check out the graph user survey.**